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Content Sections
Introduction: From VP of Marketing & Sales, Pam Mayerfeld
In the Spotlight: Introducing Enviro-T In-Line Fluorometer
Instruments in Action: Dye and Modeling Study to Evaluate Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent
New Accessories: PTSA Calibration Standard for UV Sensors, C3 Wiper now has 3 brushes, C3 Shade Cap now has Air Purge Slots and Cyclops-7 Shade Cap redesigned to Minimize Trapped Bubbles
Tech Corner: AquaFluor Quick Diagnosis Guide, EPA Method 445.0 for Trilogy, Battery Life Calculator and Logging on the C3 and C6 Platforms
Upcoming Events: Tradeshows and Poster Presentation
General Announcements: Free Shipping Offer Extended and Help Us Improve Our Website
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It seems every newsletter we pull together for you is longer than the previous one. We love that we have a steady stream of new products, accessories, and technical notes to share with you. We appreciate that you take the time to read through our newsletter, but even more so – we appreciate all the input you send our way. It's the requests we hear from you, our customers, which help us focus our development efforts on what's important to you.

Thank you and keep the ideas coming!

fluorometerBest Regards,
Pam Mayerfeld

VP of Marketing & Sales

In the Spotlight

Enviro-T In-Line FluorometerIntroducing Enviro-T In-Line Fluorometer
Enviro-T is an accurate, single-channel fluorometer which installs into a plumbing tee for direct in-line measurements. The Enviro-T provides a 4-20mA output signal proportional to the relative concentration of the fluorophore of interest in the sample water. Initially configured to detect chlorophyll, the Enviro-T can be integrated with data collection systems to provide real-time data for determining relative concentration of chlorophyll, which is used as a proxy for determining algal biomass. The Enviro-T is a rugged, continuous-sampling device providing maximum performance, minimal maintenance, and solid state reliability.

To learn more please visit our website or contact our sales team.

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Instruments in Action

Dye and Modeling Study to Evaluate Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent
The City of Vacaville, in conjunction with The Easterly Wastewater Treatment Plant and Brown and Caldwell, has been conducting multiple large-scale studies related to evaluating the fate of the treatment plant effluent. This project is divided into two separate components, the creek system and the delta system area of study. One of the key focus elements is to investigate the potential for diluted wastewater traveling from Cache Slough to the North Bay Aqueduct intake at the head of Barker Slough. These studies will utilize data provided by six C3 Fluorometers equipped with internal data logging and several Cyclops-7 Fluorometers connected to Campbell CR-1000 dataloggers installed and collecting data at various points along the water path.

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The in situ fluorometers deployed at the continuous monitoring locations are correlated to each other before and after each survey using a circulating batch calibration system. In this technique, the C3's and Cyclops-7's are placed in a horseshoe-shaped circulating vessel designed to hold all sensors simultaneously. Each sensor is light-baffled in order to prevent optical interference. Initially the batch vessel is filled with creek water collected from the study area without dye for the purpose of measuring a background fluorescence signal to be used as a zero per instrument. Dye is then added incrementally to the circulating water until a target concentration is reached. Measurements are collected throughout this process. The results are used to compute polynomial curve fit coefficients for each instrument during post-processing to convert field readings to corrected actual dye concentrations.

The C3's deployed in the field at various locations are anchored to the bottom of the waterway through a PVC and steel cable mounting platform. This is an evolving design which will ultimately allow stored and real-time data access without bringing the C3 back to the surface. Internally, the steel cable allows the PVC structure and C3 to remain connected even in the event there is a break in the pipe or the structure gets dislodged.

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Initial data collected in the spring of 2011 provided interesting insights to the water flow patterns for the areas under study. In the image below, a charging station is actively drawing water in, which as a result, causes no dye to be measured at the mouth of the delta. Information and insight collected from this study will be used for a permitting process related to site upgrades that are scheduled to take place in 2013.

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New Accessories

PTSA Calibration Standard for UV Sensors
Turner Designs offers UV sensors that are used for detection of Crude Oil, Optical Brighteners, and CDOM. Among the most common questions asked are:

1) Where can I find calibration standards?
2) How do I calibrate this fluorometer?
3) Is my instrument functioning as expected?

The purpose of calibrating a fluorometer to a standard with a known concentration is to try and estimate the concentration of the fluorophore of interest in natural water samples. This task becomes quite difficult when using in situ UV fluorometers because most all-natural water contains interference compounds that will affect the signal measured. For this reason, these UV applications should be viewed as qualitative measures (i.e. looking at trends over time or for the presence/absence of a measured signal).

However, you can answer the question, "Is my instrument functioning as expected?" To make this check you need to purchase a calibration standard and make a dilution series to be measured by the UV sensor in an effort to determine instrument limits and linearity and compare them to the manufacturer's specifications for that instrument. Unfortunately, many UV standards can be toxic, extremely flammable, hard to handle, and may have strict regulations for disposal. For example, using oil standards can be dangerous because they are highly toxic to humans and require a breathing apparatus, gloves, fume hood, lab coat, etc. Alternatively, Quinine Sulfate is a popular standard used for calibrating in situ UV sensors, but it is somewhat toxic to plants, animals, and the general public and cannot be dumped down the drain because it is mixed in sulfuric acid, which is another compound that can cause harm during handling.

Recently, Turner Designs released a standard that can be used to calibrate most UV sensors on the market called 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (PTSA). This standard can be used to determine whether UV instrumentation, namely Cyclops-7 UV sensors, are working as expected and meet Turner Designs' specifications and published limits. PTSA is an invisible dye that is fully soluble in water. It is typically used as an industrial tracer dye. It is safe to handle, easy to dilute (specific gravity is 1.0), not toxic, flammability equivalent to water, not reactive, and not hazardous to the environment. The most beneficial quality of this standard is that you can simply dump it down the drain after use. (Note: make sure to check with the appropriate local or state departments to determine if the release is reportable under applicable laws and regulations for your region.) Users that want to compare multiple UV sensors, either from the same or different manufacturers, can use PTSA to standardize their fluorometers so that values are reported in PTSA equivalents. This makes for an easier comparison especially if the fluorometers are deployed at long distances from each other.

PTSA does not degrade easily and can be stored in a dark bottle at room temperature for up to a year. Purchase price is quite low and PTSA is available from Turner Designs as a calibration standard with a known concentration of 400 ppb. (P/N 10-609)

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C3 Wiper now has 3 Brushes
The C3 Submersible Fluorometer Wiper (P/N 2300-450) now includes 3 brushes rather than 1 to further reduce biofouling. After receiving customer requests to add more brushes, we researched the costs and performance and found we could make this improvement with no increase in price. All C3s ordered with wipers now receive the 3-brush configuration. The 3-brush wiper is also available as a simple field retrofit for existing C3s configured with a 1-brush wiper. For additional information, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

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C3 Shade Cap now has Air Purge Slots
The C3 Submersible Fluorometer's Shade Cap (P/N 2300-500) now includes slots near the face of the sensors to better purge trapped air bubbles. Several customers found that when deploying the C3, bubbles sometimes collected on the optical face causing erratic readings. We added 3 air purge slots to allow bubbles to escape while still efficiently blocking light from the sensors and protecting the optical head. For additional information, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Cyclops-7 Shade Cap redesigned to Minimize Trapped Bubbles
fluorometerWe are replacing our Cyclops-7 Shade Cap for stainless and titanium sensors with a new design (P/N 2100-701). This new Cyclops-7 shade cap was also designed to minimize bubbles being trapped near the face of the sensor. The streamlined design is very similar to our Plastic Cyclops-7 Shade Cap which receives positive feedback from customers. For additional information, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .


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Tech Corner

AquaFluor Quick Diagnosis Guide
Turner Designs' Technical Support put together a quick and easy diagnosis guide for some possible AquaFluor issues. The guide allows users to quickly diagnose and in most cases resolve the issue in the field and avoid sending the instrument back to Turner Designs. http://www.turnerdesigns.com/t2/doc/Instructions/998-0877.pdf

A suggested method for using the Trilogy Laboratory Fluorometer with EPA Method 445.0
We now have a method outlining how to use the Trilogy Laboratory Fluorometer with EPA Method 445.0. http://www.turnerdesigns.com/t2/doc/appnotes/S-0088.pdf

Battery Life Calculator
You can calculate a conservative estimation of how many days you can expect to log data on your C3 or C6 simply by entering your logging parameters online. Factors such as battery charge and water temperature will affect the number of logging days.

Logging on the C3 and C6 Platforms
If you encounter problems with logging on the C3 or C6 platforms there are a few troubleshooting steps you can take to try to resolve the issue.

1. Make sure your instrument is updated with the current firmware and that you are using the most current software version of C-Soft. The Turner Designs website has all of these available to download with simple easy-to-follow instructions. http://www.turnerdesigns.com/t2/sw/main.html

2. If you are trying to log to a CTD, third party platform or C-FINS and are having problems you may want to consider purchasing an integration cable (24-inch P/N 2200-160 or 5 foot P/N 2200-165). This cable is designed to digitally integrate the C3 and C6 for continuous data output.

3. Make sure your instrument is calibrated for depth and there is a value set even if you do not have a depth sensor. If the calibration gets reset, the depth calibration can get overlooked and it has been known to cause logging issues.

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If these suggestions do not resolve the issue or you have additional questions please This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

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Upcoming Events
Tradeshows where we're exhibiting:

Oceans 2011 Kona MTS/IEEE, Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA, Hilton Waikoloa Village, September 19-22, 2011 Booth# 96

NALMS 2011, Spokane, Washington, USA, Spokane Convention Center, October 26-28, 2011
Booth# 33

CERF 2011, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA, Ocean Center, November 6-10, 2011
Booth# 30

AGU Fall Meeting 2011, San Francisco, California, USA, Moscone Center, December 5-9, 2011
Booth# 1556
Poster Presentation:

CERF 2011
Poster Title: Turner Designs' Fluorometric Integrated Nautical Mapping System (C-FINS)
Formal Presentation: Monday, November 7, 2011, 5:30-6:30 P.M.
Session Name: SCI-054 - Marine Habitat Mapping (posters)
Days Displayed: November 7 - 10, 2011 starting at 9:45 A.M.

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General Announcements

Free Shipping Offer Extended for 2011
In 2010 we began to offer free ground shipping and handling on all orders greater than $500 shipping within the continental US. We are happy to announce that the offer has been extended through December 31, 2011. To request a quote please visit our website.

Help Us Improve Our Website
We are working to update our website early in the new year. Our goal is to provide an easy-to-navigate website so customers can find information as quickly as possible. If you would like to provide input please visit our website feedback form.

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Turner Designs Inc. · 845 W. Maude Avenue · Sunnyvale · CA · 94085 · USA
Toll Free 877.316.8049 · Tel 408.749.0994 · Fax 408.749.0998
www.turnerdesigns.com
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