Introduction: Letter from the Director of Sales & Marketing
In the Spotlight: Fluorescence Solutions in the Palm of Your Hand
Jim's Corner: Data Collection of the Model 10AU
Instruments In Action: St. Anthony Falls Laboratory Utilizes 10AU & SCUFA for Hydraulic Experiments
Fluorometer Tips: Simplifying Fluorometer Calibration
Technically Speaking: Effect of Light on In Vivo Chlorophyll Fluorescence
Upcoming Events: ERF Conference
We find ourselves entering the ‘dog days’ of summer as temperatures soar and algae bloom. It is during this time of the year that those of you who are constantly on the look out for blooms should consider how a chlorophyll monitoring system could help you. Systems such as the AlgaeWatch On-Line Fluorometer have been designed to assist you in avoiding algal bloom issues by providing sensitive and accurate real-time data on the algal growth in any water body. The availability of real-time data will allow you to track diurnal changes as well as longer trends in algal biomass.
If you are involved in water resources, you will be able to witness the onset of a bloom and take appropriate action before it reaches damaging levels. Additionally, the data will enable you to make efficient use of treatment chemicals, utilize the best possible water source, investigate the potential presence of taste and odor causing species, and predict filter rates. For those of you interested in monitoring coastal areas, bays or lakes, real-time algal biomass data can provide an informative data set to an existing monitoring program, detect the potential presence of harmful algal blooms, and provide a measure of the effectivity of algal treatment. We are committed to offering you simplified solutions for difficult monitoring problems.
See the article: "Simplifying Fluorometer Calibration" for information on the products and services available from Turner Designs that will ensure you collect valid data - in the lab, or in the field. Plus, our new e-support for chlorophyll a measurements section of our web site is designed to provide the background and step-by-step instruction to transform anyone into a chlorophyll monitoring expert!
And of course, if you still want to speak to someone, we're here to help. For sales assistance or quotes please call our sales team at (408)212-4017 and for technical assistance please call our technical support team at (408) 212 4016. We look forward to hearing from you.
Affordable Fluorescence Solutions in the Palm of your Hand
The AquaFluor Handheld Fluorometer provides affordable fluorescence solutions for those that need a lightweight and easy-to-use fluorometer out in the field. This dual channel instrument comes in the following models:
· In Vivo Chlorophyll a & Turbidity (8000-001)
Measurements for the first two models are taken by discrete sampling with 10mm x 10mm cuvettes, while the 8000-007 model utilizes 12mm test tubes. The intuitive push button layout of the AquaFluor makes this unit very easy to use, while the rugged waterproof design makes it hard to abuse. For more detailed specifications on this instrument, please view our AquaFluor datasheet.
First introduced in 2000, our handheld fluorometers have been meeting the fluorescence needs of thousands of customers throughout the world. Universities, research institutions, and environmental consultants are among the customers that have benefited from the use of our handheld fluorometer with their research projects. A few example customers that utilize the AquaFluor Handheld Fluorometer for their research includes:
· University of Arizona - Water Resources Department(chlorophyll/turbidity)
To learn more about how the AquaFluor can assist you with your research, please don't hesitate to
| Jim McCormick, our Tech Support Manager, has been with Turner Designs for over 15 years and has extensive expertise with our entire line of instruments.
The third way to collect data is to use the Analog output of the 10-AU connected to an external datalogger. Refer to Appendix 11 of the 10-AU User Manual for more details.
"How often should I calibrate my fluorometer?"
Turner Designs has significantly simplified the calibration process as well as the process of validating whether a re-calibration is required. To determine if a calibration is required, Turner Designs has developed a series of secondary standards. Use of these standards eliminates the need for primary standards (a pure solution that has a known concentration) since, once a relationship is established, the solid standard simulates a concentration of the primary fluorophore being measured.
Turner Designs also sells Primary Standards for calibrating fluorometers when making extracted chlorophyll measurements. With the emphasis again on ease of use, the liquid Chlorophyll standard is supplied in an ampule ready to use, and comes with a certified concentration, and certificate of analysis.
When performing in-vivo sampling, using Solid Secondary standards is the most logical approach for calibrating. Then when you extract samples you will determine the correlation of the Secondary Solid standard for a given "in-vivo" Chlor a concentration, visit our website for more details.
Likewise, when you perform extracted chlorophyll analysis, initially you will calibrate with a Primary Standard in the appropriate solvent, and at that point will determine the correlation of the Solid Secondary standard on a freshly calibrated instrument.
This gives you the convenience and cost savings of using the Solid Secondary standard on a routine basis for doing your Calibrations for both the in-vivo and extracted Chlor measurements, so that you can calibrate for either situation quickly and repeatedly.
To obtain further information on Turner Designs Primary and Secondary Standards please visit our website, or email our
St. Anthony Falls Laboratory Utilizes 10AU & SCUFA for Hydraulic Experiments
Ben Erickson is one of the scientists at SAFL, and is considered the "fluorometer guru" of the laboratory due to his extensive experience with the Turner Designs line of fluorometers. Ben and his colleagues utilize the 10AU and SCUFA fluorometers to conduct hydraulic experiments using rhodamine WT dye as a fluorescent tracer. The information learned in their dye tracing experiments is then applied to solving real life hydraulic issues.
One of the recent issues that the SAFL is currently working on is the feasibility of an emergency sewage storage system for overflows caused by above average amounts of rain runoff in an urban location. To investigate the feasibility, Ben and his team conducted experiments on a smaller scale system that resembled the location under investigation. The key questions that required the use of our fluorometers was how to best set up an aeration system for sewage treatment. The fluorometers were used to quantify diffusion and dispersion in and around a deep bubble column.
To investigate the aeration set-up, the SAFL placed submersible aerators at strategically placed locations on the bottom of the experimental water system. Slugs of rhodamine WT tracer dye were then released at the bottom of the system, while the 10AU and SCUFA Fluorometers monitored its concentration at various points in the water column. With the data from multiple trials, estimates were made on the rate that a bubble column would entrain the surrounding water.
To address the gas exchange questions, the experiment took the data from the previous entrainment experiments and decided on a reasonable flow rate to inject of the test solution. Known flow rates of the conservative tracer rhodamine WT and a volatile tracer were then added at the bottom of the water column. Once at a steady state, water samples were collected and analyzed utilizing fluorometers and gas chromatography yielded data indicating how much tracer gas escaped from solution into gas. The flourometers were used both in the final analysis and during the course of the experiments. They proved quite valuable by allowing the researchers to look at the real time data as the experiment progressed.
With the amount of useful data generated from these experiments and the fluorometers, Ben considers the research project to be an overall success. This information will soon be transferred to the engineering community to enable them to make sound decisions on the emergency sewage storage system project. To learn more about the exciting research that goes on at SAFL, please be sure to visit their website.
Technically Speaking, It All Adds Up...
Two steps that can be taken to avoid false chlorophyll readings are:
Next month's article will explain why the Calibration Solution reading may change immediately after calibrating the fluorometer.
| ERF Conference
September 15-17, 2003